Craiova is the capital of Dolj County, known as "the capital of Oltenia" with a population of over 300,000 inhabitants.Craiova is located in southern Romania, on the left bank of the Jiu, at an altitude between 75 and 116 m. Craiova is part of the Romanian Plain, specifically the Oltenia Plain that lies between the Danube River and the Getic plateau, being crossed by Jiu Valley. The city is located approximately in the center of Oltenia, at a distance of 227 km from Bucharest and 68 km from the Danube.The origin of the current name of the city is the subject of many controversies and it is surrounded by legend; the only thing that can be said with certainty is that the name comes from slavonescul "Kralj" (king, emperor). Craiova was documentally cetified at the end of the fifteenth century, namely in 1475, on June the1st. City name comes from the estate of Craiovescu Noblemen, who played a very important role due to many rulers of Romanian County named from their family, and even themselves named Mihai Viteazu as the ruler of Romanian County, the symbol of Oltenia,whose imposing statue we can admire the in the center of the city.
Besides the ancient name, Pelendava and current name (Craiova), the town was named beginning with the VII-VIII centuries by the Latin name Ponsiona (bridge over Jiu) . The name located on an inscription found on a VII th century fragment of a stele near Pelendava camp , received confirmation of extreme importance in recent years, a map made up around the Battle of Nicopolis (1396), contained in a manuscript kept at the National Library in Paris. This document , revealed to Romanian historiography by courtesy of French Ministry of Religious Affairs proves the continuity of settlement of Craiova.Some historians, including Nicolae Iorga, Bogdan Alexandru D. Petriceicu Haşdeu Xenopol believe that today's territory of Craiova was the scene of the Battle of Rovine in the time of Mircea the Elder.At the end of the fifteenth century, Craiova was a fair spread in the land of the powerful landowners Craiovesti and Basarabi. After the first half of the sixteenth century, Craiova is commonly called city, becoming the most important place of trade in the area.
Formed in the last decades of the fifteenth century, Craiova has become in a relatively short time the country's second most important political institution after reign.During Mihai Viteazu ( Michael the Brave), Craiova witnessed a great boost, contemporary sources showing the city as an important political and military center. In the Middle Ages, Craiova was also a center with an important military and strategic role, being a grouping or regrouping of military forces and anti- Ottoman center trigger actions.In 1770-1771, Craiova becomes capital of Romanian County. Bucharest was played between Russian and Turkish armies; and the Romanian capital is moved to Craiova, Mr. Emanuel Giani-Ruset watching from here the wars.In 1913 during the Titu government there was signed a peace treaty ending the Balkan War, treaty known in history as the "Peace of Craiova".In 1940 Craiova becomes the place for "Romanian-Bulgarian conference" after the Romanian-Bulgarian talkings in Craiova, a treaty was signed on September the7th, 1940, by which the Southern Dobrogea (the Quadrilater) went to Bulgaria.Since the 60s the city becomes a powerful industrial center; develops building industry machinery, aircraft, chemicals, food, light, building materials, electrical industry, mining, energy industry. Among them we can mention Electroputere, aircraft factory, the automobile or plant from Işalniţa.Craiova today is a creation of modern urban place where people inherit a land blessed by God, waters, forests, gardens, parks, with numerous historical and architectural monuments and remarkable cultural institutions, science and education, a framework for local comforting, hospitable and friendly of any traveler, tourist or foreign businessman.In Craiova there are several parks, such as Nicholas Park Romanescu, Youth Park Garden Botanică- Park Marin Sorescu National Theatre, Park St. Demetrius, English Park, etc. Romanescu Nicholas Park, one of the most beautiful parks in the country and third natural park in Europe was arranged between 1900-1903, during Mayor Romanescu , by French architect E. Redont. It occupies an area of approximately 100 hectares and is located in the south of Craiova, the whereabouts of the family estate and garden Bibescu famous in the fifth decade of the nineteenth century as a place of promenade of highlife Craiova. Youth Park is housed in an oak forest of 60 hectares and comprises a base sport seats promenades and playgrounds for children.Also our city has a rich history dowry in the form of statues of the impressive personalities who have left their mark on Craiova facts and the whole country: the statue of Prince Mihai Viteazul (Michael the Brave), AI Cuza, King Charles I, Prince Barbu Ştirbei; in the form of architectural monuments such as Administrative Palace, Craiova City Hall, County Library, National Theatre, University, County Court Palace Vorvoreanu or as museums: Museum of Art and the Museum of Oltenia and churches: Madonna Dudu Church, the Saint Dumitru, and so on.Another attraction of our city is the musical fountain in the center of Craiova, the largest fountain in the country and one of the few of its kind in Europe. Hundreds of water jets, lights in dozens of colors and fragments of classical music have completely changed the atmosphere in the center of Craiova.Also in our city there are numerous cultural institutions, such as Marin Sorescu National Theatre, Opera Romanian Craiova, Oltenia Philharmonic Theatre for Children and Youth Colibri, Maria Tanase Folk Art Museum, the Museum of Oltenia, etc.